Saturday, June 1, 2013

Traces of Holocaust in Stockholm III - Cemeteries

Holocaust and WWII traces are found at cemeteries in Stockholm and in Jewish and Christian cemeteries in other cities of this country.

There are numerous graves from former prisoners from concentration camps that came to Sweden after WWII and Holocaust ended (or just 3 weeks before). In Sweden they received medical care but numerous died almost directly during 1945-1946, very young. This type of graves are at many places in Sweden where former camp prisoners received medical treatment.

The evacuations known as "White buses" started on March 15, just 7 weeks before WWII ended. The first trips of the buses were aimed for Nazi wives and children (approx. 1500) and thereafter for non-Jewish, Scandinavian inmates of the concentration camps.

Jewish, former prisoners from concentration camps, most of them came to Sweden by Red Cross ships. It was the Swedish Red Cross and UNRRA action. Swedish Red Cross ships sailed from Lübeck to several Swedish cities along the coastline. The former prisoners from concentration camps were taken to the special hospitals belonging to the Swedish Military organization (Beredskapssjukhus). Many patients survived just a few days or weeks. Most of the patients were female and came from the Bergen-Belsen camp.

Picture taken on May 29th 1945 at Bergen-Belsen Camp.

Frimetta Einhorn was 16 when she was liberated at Bergen-Belsen camp. She came to Stockholm by the Red Cross ship on June 5th, 1945. She died in Sigtuna hospital on August 7th, 1945. Her grave is at K-section of Norra begravningsplatsen (cemetery) in Stockholm. Her name is misspelled after it has been changed at the Sigtuna hospital.

6 THOUSAND OF 6 MILLION: A REQUIEM / Romuald Wróblewski, editor

Wroblewski, Romuald.
2nd     Year: 1995
207 p. [name lists: p. 67-166] : ill., facsims., map, tab ; 23 cm.
Number of Names or Other Entries-- Approx. 6,000 Names.

The book 6 TUSEN AV 6 MILJONER: ETT REQUIEM by Romuald Wróblewskiet. al. includes a register of 6,000 Jews who perished during the Holocaust (p. 67-166). The names listed are relatives of Holocaust survivors living in Sweden. This list was gathered by Wroblewski during 1994-1995 and includes 6,000 names of Holocaust victims. Holocaust survivors and their families, now living in Sweden provided testimony to compile the list. The list includes the name, birth year, birth place, death year, death place, and the name of the group or individual who submitted the entry (eg Holocaust survivor or Second Generation). The names come from Holocaust survivors born throughout Europe. The only connecting feature of the 6000 is that their names were provided by individuals residing in Sweden as of 1995. The resulting listing of Holocaust victims was first prepared in electronic form, published in this book, and was thereafter inscribed on the Stockholm Holocaust Name Monument (memorial) itself. 
Besides this list provided by survivors, the book includes a register of Jewish refugees (Like Frimetta Einhorn) who died in Sweden in 1945-1946 and the list of Jewish refugees who died while being transported to Sweden. The lists were obtained from Red Cross and other organizations.

Holocaust survivors that are listed were from12 countries in Europe and there are several with "unknown nationality", and/or "unknown country of origin".

Two stone memorials dedicated to the victims of Nazi persecution. Both atthe Stockholm Jewish cemetery Norra.The monument on the right with two wings, was designed by Mrs. R. Hedemann, a sculptress who was herself a refugee.

IMPORTANT  United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 

Above mentioned "Name list section" is in Survivors Registry Collection as a computer file in MS Word document format, at S:\DATA\Reglists\Ab0018\Wrklist.doc [Available to authorized Survivors Registry staff only].

Please check also:

Traces of Holocaust in Stockholm I - The Stockholm Holocaust Monument - Memorial

Traces of Holocaust in Stockholm II - The Adas Jeschurun synagogue that survived the Kristallnacht destruction of November 8, 1938