Saturday, February 2, 2019

Holocaust survivors who died in Stockholm during Summer 1945

Vita bussar med blåa inresekort och Vita skepp med de bruna. Weisz Eva kom med de Vita bussarna och Weinberger Rozi med de Vita fartygen. Båda dog strax efter att ha kommit till Sverige för vård.

Victoria Martinez writes in an article in The Local about Holocaust survivors buried in Stockholm 

Victoria Martinez wrote an article How Stockholm is restoring dignity to the neglected graves of 100 Holocaust victims. Afterwards, I was interviewed by Ellen Gruber

The project is spearheaded by Roman Wroblewski, the Polish-born son of Holocaust survivors who fled to Sweden in 1967. Wroblewski, an emeritus medical school professor, also conceived the main Holocaust memorial in Stockholm, dedicated at the city’s synagogue in 1998. That memorial lists around 8,500 names of Holocaust victims who were relatives of survivors who settled in Sweden after the war.

On the new memorial project, Wroblewski is working with city authorities and with the Stockholm Jewish community.

He presented a detailed plan for the project to city authorities at the end of 2018, and also contacted the director of the city museum earlier in the fall. Funds are now being sought for what he told JHE would be an approximately €145,000 undertaking.

Almost all of the burials in the plot are of women and girls who had been among survivors who were found at or brought to Bergen-Belsen after its liberation by British forces in April 1945. (Tens of thousands of prisoners were found starving or suffering from typhus and other diseases when Bergen-Belsen was liberated — Anne Frank had succumbed not long before liberation.)

Victoria Martinez writes in an article in The Local that the people buried in Stockholm are believed to have been brought over on one ship:
All of the victims buried at the site share several similarities, starting with the fact that most of them had been transferred from Auschwitz to Bergen-Belsen, a concentration camp in Northern Germany, where they were eventually liberated on April 15th, 1945.
Though they managed to survive to liberation, they were seriously ill when they boarded the S/S Kastelholm, one of the Swedish Red Cross’ “White Ships” that transported survivors from Germany to Sweden, in the summer of 1945. In two crossings, the ship carried 400 survivors from Lübeck, Germany, to Stockholm’s Frihamnen port, including all of those buried in the Northern Cemetery.
About the White Ships in Swedish and Summary in English.  In Swedish De vita skeppen — en svensk humanitär operation 1945 by Sune Birke, five “White Ships” were in operation and brought more than 9,200 Holocaust survivors from Germany to Sweden. 
Links to the project in English


De vita skeppen — en svensk humanitär operation 1945 by Sune Birke, five “White Ships” were in operation and brought more than 9,200 Holocaust survivors from Germany to Sweden. Birke wrote that Bergen-Belsen had been chosen by British authorities “as a terminal for collecting [survivors] from all of the British occupation zone.” (You can read an English summary of this article below or by clicking HERE and scrolling down to page 94).

English summary of Sune Birke: The White Ships
In summer 1945 Swedish ships carried out a remarkable humanitarian and maritime mission when more than 9 000 ex-concentration camp prisoners ("displaced persons") were taken over the Baltic from Germany to Sweden in one month for rehabilitation. This mission has passed through history fairly unnoticed, although it contains some very interesting details relating to the planning and organizing of the mission, its reception by British forces in Luebeck, and escort by German minesweepers as well as other items. My main sources for this paper have been the acts of the Royal Naval Board of Logistics and of the Naval Staff; the log and the final report from the hospital ship H Sw MS Prins Carl and the final report from the Swedish Red Cross detachment in Luebeck. All of the se acts can be easily found in the Swedish War Archive or State Archive. I have not considered it necessary for my purpose to go through the acts of the civilian ship companies concerned, nor the logs of the participating merchant ships. In my opinion, the material I have used is sufficient to provide an overall view as to how the mission was decided, planned and carried out. The decision The formal decision to undertake this mission was taken by the King in State Council on the l st of June 1945. Before that, on May 30th, a telegram from the UNRRA (United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration) to the Swedish Committee for International Charity stated that the UNRRA had decided to accept the "helpful offer of your government" to welcome same 10 000 displaced persons to Sweden. Unfortunately, however, the telegram tells us nothing of when and how this offer was made. In any event, the telegram was submitted by the Committee to the Social ministry on May 31st and became the trigger for the formal decision. This very quick process seems to tell us, that the mission, in fact, had already been prepared for same time before the telegram arrived. The decision, then, stated that Sweden was to receive for rehabilitation, at most l0 000 displaced persons who were under repatriation by the UNRAA. The Royal Board of Civilian Defence was given the task of organizing the transport of those persons from Germany to Sweden, and the Board of Naval Logistics was to provide the ships. 95 The ships selected for the mission were: HMS Prins Carl, a hospital ship, launched in 1931 as the S/S Munin, a freight and passenger steamer, which was taken over by the Navy in 1939 and recommissioned for the new task; S/S Kastelholm, a passenger steamer designed mainly for the Baltic waters, launched in 1929; M/S Kronprinsessan Ingrid, a ear- and passenger ship, launched in 1936 to cross the route over the Skagerak between Sweden and Denmark; M/S Karskär and Rönns kär, launched in 1943 for use in the Baltic and the North Sea. Preparations The formalities concerned with the renting of the civilian ships went very smoothly, apparently having been prepared in advance. Now the ships had to be modified and rebuilt for their new task. Obviously, the need for this was greatest as regards the two cargo ships, which had to be fitted out with beds for some 260 persons in their cargo rooms. All the work was carried out in Swedish naval or civilian dockyards before the 20th of June. At the same time, a Swedish Red Cross detachment was organised in Luebeck, manned by Swedish, German and British personnel. The purpose of the detachment was to receive an estimated 2 000 displaced persons a week. They were to arrive by train from the infamous concentration camp Bergen-Belsen, which was chosen by the British authorities as a terminal for co11ecting them from all over the British occupation zone. From the detachment, they were to be sent down to the ships. Thus you could say that the commander of the Luebeck detachment actually regulated the timetables of the ships. The first voyage to Luebeck The ships were assembled in Trelleborg on June 22nd, and shortly after they sailed for Luebeck. The distance was some 150 nautical miles, and the time for the voyage 13 - 14 hours. It is interesting to note that the Swedish ships were escorted over the Baltic by German, ex-Kriegsmarine minesweepers, still sailing with their original crews hut flying the allied control flag. In Luebeck, which had been little damaged by the war, there was a small Royal Navy presence. The overall command, however, was executed by the British 21st Army Group, which seems to have had a rather difficult job in maintaining law and order in the city. The streets were crowded with unemployed Germans as well as liberated foreign slave-laborers waiting for repatriation and on the first night the British shot seven Poles who were caught plundering. As a result, obviously, of this rather tense situation, the British did not allow the Swedish crews to go ashore on leave, a decision that was very unpopular and that was later rescinded. While the Swedish ships were being fitted out with German devices against caustic mines, the first patients arrived at the Swedish Luebeck detachment. The Swedish conditions were, that the patients selected • should be medically fit for transportation to Sweden • should have a good chance of being rehabilitated • should not suffer from any epidemical disease. It seems that the British authorities who delivered the patients did not observe these conditions; many of the patients were in a very bad condition, suffering from severe malnutrition and tuberculosis, and, in fact, a few of them did not survive the voyage. The patients were taken care of in the detachment and from there sent forward to the ships. During the 27th and 28th of June, Karskär, Rönnskär, Kastelholm and Prins Carl took aboard some 200 patients each, while the Kronprinsessan Ingrid took a few more than 400. Those patients were taken back to Sweden and, depending on their condition, sent to various Swedish hospitals. The mission goes on In short, the command and control structure of the mission might be described as follows: • The overall command and responsibility rested on the Board of Civilian Defence, assisted in strictly medical matters by the Board of Medical administration; • The command in place in Luebeck was held by the commandant of the Luebeck detachment, who supervised the arrival of patients from Belsen and their departure by ship to Sweden; • The Naval Staff had the task of following the movements of the ships at sea, maintaining radio communication and transmitting messages and logistical requests. lt also had to take decisions relating to naval matters (eg whether the ships should be escorted by minesweepers or not). • The command of the ships at sea rested on each individual captain. More often than not, the ships seem to have maneuvered rather independently of each other. 97 The subsequent voyages were rather like the first one, with some exceptions. For instance, the demand for an escort by minesweepers on the voyage was dropped. After demands from the Naval Staff to the UK Embassy in Stockholm, the 21st Army Group eventually withdraw the prohihitian against shore leave. The time in harbour, both in Luebeck and in Sweden, was shortened, due to the fact that experience had been gained and also, it seems because the patients were in a better medical condition. Nothing extraordinary seems to have happened during the voyages except that some patients died, as I mentioned earlier. For instance, the Prins Carl had 7 casualties in all. To summarise, the voyages were carried out in the following manner: Ship Number of voyages Average number of patients each voyage HSwMS Prins Carl 4 150-200 M/S Kronprinsessan Ingrid 8 400-450 S/S Kastelholm 5 200-235 M/S Karskär lO 240 M/S Rönnskär 9 240 Beginning Jul y 17th, the Prins Carl also made two voyages from Malmö to Gotland with patients afflicted by tuberculosis who were taken to a Swedish military hospital for treatment. End of the mission From the middle of July, the commandant of the Luebeck detachment had frequent talks with the British about when to end the mission. The goal, l0 000 patients, was el o se at hand, and the British seemed to be having som e trouble in finding more patients. Thus, S/S Kastelholm made the last voyage on July 25th. The civilian ships were restared to their previous condition and returned to their owners in the beginning of August. The result, In my opinion, the commandant of the Luebeck detachment gives the most accurate estimation of the number of patients evacuated from Germany in his final report According to his numbering, from June 23rd to July 25th 1945, 9 373 patients were received by the detachment and 9 273 sent over the Baltic to Sweden with the White Ships. The majority of them were of Central or Eastern European origin. More than half of them were Poles, and the main part comprised of women. 

Friday, February 1, 2019

Lübecklistan - Sara Neujahr och 46 andra som inte kom ombord på de Vita skeppen i juni 1945

Halina Neujahr vid sin systers grav. Sara dog efter bastu och det kalla duschen efteråt, strax före avresan till Sverige.
Så gick det till innan ombordstigningen.
Bastu och efter det en kall dusch. Allt strax före avresan till Sverige.

Listan på 3 sidor, troligen från ett tyska förband skulle innehålla en förteckning över vapen. Istället så innehåller Lübecklistan 47 namn på fd fångar från koncentrationslägret som skulle till Sverige för att få vård. De fyra första dödsdatum (Gestorben) avser den 27 juni 1945. Jag förstod direkt vad det var för lista när jag såg de fyra första namnen och dödsdatumet. Den tredje personen på listan var nämligen Sara Neujahr. Begraven i Lübeck, syster till min nära vän Halina Neujahr.

Från Seth Jacobsons som är rabbinens Wolf Jacobsons* (Jeschuruns förste rabbin) barnbarn fick jag en en lista med förfrågan vad handlade listan om?

Listan på 4 sidor var från Lübeck. De fyra första dödsdatum (Gestorben) avser den 27 juni 1945.

Jag förstod direkt  vad det var för lista när jag såg de fyra första namnen och dödsdatumet.

Det var fd fångar från koncentrationslägret som skulle till Sverige för att få vård.

Till Lübeckhamn har på söndagskvällen den 24 juni anlöpt fem svenska fartyg, Vita skepp, som skulle föra de till Sverige.

Patienterna började tas ombord på fartygen just den 27 juni och den 28 juni var slls patienter ombord. Inte alla tilltänkta då listan omfattar faktiskt de som skulle tas ombord men dog strax innan. Den tredje namnet på listan är Sara Neujahr.

Hennes syster Halina Neujahr har burits ombord den 28 juni och samma dag klockan 20.20 lämnade HMS Prins Carl, Lübeckhamn och en timme senare ankrade fartyget i Travemünde inför överfarten nästa dag till Sverige. Resan till Sverige startade klockan tre på morgonen och klockan 8.30 förtöjde fartyget i Kalmar där de svagaste, mest sjuka patienterna togs i land. Därefter lämnade fartyget Kalmar och kom till Norrköping på morgonen den 1 juli (kl. 7.30) till Norrköping.  

Från Prins Carls däcksloggbok
Lördag 30 juni kl 0130 avled Sylvia Weiss ... 
0810 fortöjt vid kaj i Kalmar ... 
0905 stoftet efter avlidna Sylvia Weiss (borde stå Szilwia Weisz) ilandfört ... 

För att ta emot patientema organiserades genom UNRRA och Svenska Röda korsets försorg ett detachement i Lübeck, det s.k. Lübeckdetachementet. Chef för detta var doktor/major Hans Amoldsson. Detachementet upprättades i Cambrai-kasernerna vid Schwartauer Alle strax utanför staden. Med britisk hjälp iordningställde man en patientförläggning i tre byggnader med sammanlagt l 400 bäddplatser och en reception med svensk, tysk och brittisk personal. Vidare ingick en svensk badpluton med utrustning för bastubad. Patienterna skulle i huvudsak anlända med tåg. Fem tåg per vecka, vardera med c:a 450 passagerare. De skulle registreras och väljas för vidare transport till Sverige. Vid ankomsten skulle de mötas av den ovannämnda badplutonen för sanering som innebar ett het bastubad och en efterföljande iskall dusch. 

Enligt Halina Neujahr var den omilda saneringen som Sara gick igenom var orsaken till hennes död.

Sara Neujahr (25 år gammal) har sin grav i Lübeck, Halina Neujahr i Stockholm och efter deras mor Gitla Neujahr finns askan i utrotningslägret Majdanek där hon mördades i maj 1943.

*Hösten 1940 invigdes Jeschurun synagogan och rabbin i den nya synagogan blev A.I. Jacobson som flytt från Trondheim till Stockholm när nazisterna ockuperade Norge. Rabbin Jacobson var under hela krigstiden mycket engagerad i att rädda judar undan Förintelsen och för de judiska flyktingar som kom till Stockholm under och efter kriget blev Jeschurun en viktig mötesplats.

Thursday, January 31, 2019

Kataklysm - Varför sökte man inte eller dröjde länge med att söka sina närmaste släktingar efter Förintelsen? Egna och andras erfarenheter - Kατακλυσμός

Röda Korset efterforskade saknade personer som förlorat kontakten med sina nära anhöriga på grund av kriget.
Sjöräddningen eller fjällräddningen brukar upphöra med sina räddningsinsatser då man säkert vet att det inte längre finns en chans att hitta överlevande. Samma sak handlar det när det gäller fallet med de Förintelsens överlevande som upplevde själva den brutala destruktionen av sina närmaste.

De som upplevde Förintelsen på nära håll talar om kataklism, kataklysm. Kataklyʹsm (grekiska kataklysmoʹs’översvämning’, av kataklyʹzō, av kata- och klyʹzō’skölja’

På engelska finns det flera ord, ett antal synonymer som förklarar Kataklysm, bl.a. Holocaust - Förintelsen.
  • a large-scale and violent event in the natural world.
  • an event that causes a lot of destruction, or a sudden, violent change
  • an extremely destructive event or violent change:
  • a sudden violent political or social upheaval.
  • synonyms: disaster, catastrophe, calamity, tragedy, devastation, crisis, holocaust, ruin, ruination, upheaval, convulsion, blow, shock, reverse, trouble, trial, tribulation
Mina föräldrar som var i Warszawas Getto och bevittnade deportationerna till dödslägret Treblinka förstod att nästan ingen räddades från deportationerna. 99.9 % av de deporterade från Umschlagsplatz i Warszawa mördades i Trablinkas gaskammare, kvävdes till döds.

Samma sak gällde min Pappas familj som först fängslades i Pinsk getto och därefter mördades precis som i Babij Jar av Einsatsgruppen genom masskjutning. Även där var gällande procentsatsen var 99.9%.

Trots allt detta så sökte mina föräldrar sina närmaste. Det fanns jo en chans på 0.1, egentligen på 0.01% att hitta sina närmaste vid liv. 

Min nära vän, Förintelsens överlevande, Halina Neujahr visste exakt sina närmastes öde.  Hennes mor Gitla fick vid selektionen i Majdanek (1943) gå och ett annat håll än Halina och hennes äldre syster Sara. Åt annat håll bettyde döden genom kvävning.

Gutman Isaks svar när på beredskapssjukhuset i Sverige - Närmaste anhörig: Ingen

Gutman Isaks svar när han tillfrågades på beredskapssjukhuset i Sverige - Närmaste anhörig? Ingen.
Detta är ett typiskt svar för de flesta Förintelsens överlevande. De trodde inte på ett underverk, särskild de som har vistats i koncentrationsläger av typ Auschwitz där utrotningsläget Auschwitz Birkenau (Brzezinka) låg i närheten och ur krematoriets skorstenar kom det ut rök, dag och nat. Lukten vill jag ej beskriva sa till mig en överlevande.
Josef Weinberger kom till Malmö den 19 juli 1945 med Kronprincessan Ingrid som var en av de fem Vita båtar som gick i juni och juli i skyttetrafik mellan Lubeck och Sverige. Kronprincessan Ingrids sista tre turer från Lubeck: 17, 23 och 25 juli 1945. Sammanlagt har Princessan Ingrid gjort 8 turer (med ca. 400-450 patienter ombord) från Lubeck och lämnade patienter i både Malmö och Göteborg. Från Malmö transporterades han med en grupp på 150 patienter  i Lassarettfartyget Prins Carl den 27 juli och anlände dagen efter på kvällen till hamnen i Slite. Det var  sista resan för HMS Prins Carl som fortsatter därefter till Stockholm.

En förteckning jag fick år 1994 från Lärbro Pastorat då jag höll på att skriva boken 6 tusen av 6 miljoner - ett requiem. Jag kallade förteckningen då för de döda överlevande. Är det bara Josef Weinbergers bror som hittate sin släkt begravd i Lärbro? Tyvärr, så tycks det vara så. Hade Jakób Irgang som var 11 år gammal när kriget bröt uta ingen familj som överlevde?

Josef Weinberger - bilden till höger är från Lärbro sjukhus 1945. Ingen sökte honom i 40 år.

Textilarbetaren Josef Weinberger föddes i Muncacero i Tjeckoslovakien den 27 oktober 1913.  Han kom till Sverige från koncentrationslägret med UNRRAs Vita skepp. Nästan direkt därefter dog han på TBC sjukhuset i Lärbro på Gotland, till följd av den tuberkulos han ådragit sig i lägret.

Josef Weinberger är en av nio judar som ligger begravda på kyrkogården i Lärbro. Den ende som släkten sökte men först på 80-talet (1988). Då hittades han av sin bror Saul som bodde i New Jersey, USA. De hade skilts åt 1944. Saul kom 1995 till Sverige och besökte sin brors grav. Inga andra judiska gravar har besökts av anhöriga. Varför dröjde Saul Weiberger så länge?

Man visste att Josef Weinberger deporterades från sin lägenhet i Prag, Řetězová(gatan) 6 och var med i Transport M, no. 540 den 14 december 1941, från Prague till lägret i Terezín. Från Terezin flyttades han den16 maj 1944, till Auschwitz. Troligen därefter till någon av koncentrationslägren i väst såsom Bergen-Belsen. I de tjeckiska arkiven står det felaktigt att han har mördats i Auschwitz. Vad hände med hans två systrar och flickvännen på bilden nedan vet jag inte.

Josef Weinberger med sina två systrar och flickvännen

Josef Weinberger deporterades från sin lägenhet i Prag, Řetězová(gatan) 6 och var med i Transport M, no. 540 den 14 december 1941, från Prague till lägret i Terezín. Från Terezin flyttades han den16 maj 1944, till Auschwitz. Troligen därefter till någon av koncentrationslägren i väst såsom Bergen-Belsen. I de tjeckiska arkiven står det felaktigt att han har mördats i Auschwitz. Vad hände med hans två systrar och flickvännen på bilden nedan vet jag inte.
Är det bara Josef Weinbergers bror som hittate sin släkt begravd i Lärbro? Tyvärr, så tycks det vara så. Hade Jakób Irgang som var 11 år gammal när kriget bröt ut ingen familj som överlevde? Jakób kom från Lubeck med Kronprincessan Ingrid till Malmö den 4 juli 1945. Där var han att börja med på Reum. Sjukhuset och därifrån flyttades han till TBC-sjukhuset i Lärbro.

Jag vet att Irgang Jakob (Jakób) var från 4 Augusti 1944 fånge i koncentrationslägret Floßenbürg (Flossenburg) vid gränsen till Tjeckoslovakien. Jag tror att han arbetade där som såsom slavarbetare vid tillverkningen av tyskt flygplan av typen Messerschmitt Bf 109. Jakob Irgang angav vid inresan till Sverige att han var - tokarz - svarvare.  Troligen så arbetade han då 16 år gammal åt det tyska Erla Maschinenverke som betalade till SS 3 Reichmark per dag för en kvalificerad arbetskraft och hälften för okvalificerad. Hur och när han hamnade i Lubeck vet jag inte.
Jakob Irgangs trolig släkting från Jarosław som ligger 4 mil från 
Bircza överlevde Förintelsen. Släktingen väntade på en vsa till USA i en DP-läger i Tyskland.

Så står det om Irgang familjen på internet:
Hersh Wolf Irgang (Americanized as Bill Irgang) and Sura (née Entenberg) Irgang (Americanized as Sally Irgang) lived in Jaroslaw, Poland before World War II. Bill was a butcher. In 1940 they were deported to the Soviet Union for forced labor and were released in 1946. Their son Modke was born in the Soviet Union in 1944. After their release, Bill - and probably Sally and Modke - registered as stateless persons in DP Camp Hirshberg. From there they transferred to DP Camp Wels in 1947. Molly Kushner (nee Malka Irgang) was born there in 1948. They remained in Camp Wels until 1951 when they were permitted to immigrate to the United States. Sura's sister Ida, and her other family member Josef Entenberg also immigrated to the U.S. after the War. Family members awaited them in the U.S.
After the Claim Agreement between the U.S. and Poland was signed (1960), Bill, Sally, and Ida filed a claim for their lost property in Jaroslaw. Although they could not convincingly prove ownership to some of their property, they learned that they still had land to their names that they could sell. Ida died while the claim was being processed.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

The girls in the third row - History of Lily, Eva, Flora, Sari and Regina - Holocaust victims buried in Stockholm

In Stockholm's Northern Cemetery (Norra begravningsplatsen) there is a Jewish Cemetery. At the Jewish area of the cemetery, not far away from Alfred Nobel grave lie the derelict and all-but-forgotten graves of the victims of the Holocaust. These were mostly young girls and women, who died not long after arriving in Sweden for medical treatment in 1945. Both the victims and their graves have been overlooked for 74 years. In this particular area at the 3rd row there the graves of Lily, Eva, Flora, Sari, and Regina.

In Stockholm's Northern Cemetery (Norra begravningsplatsen) there is a Jewish Cemetery. At the Jewish area of the cemetery not far away from Alfred Nobel and Nelly Sachs graves lie the derelict and all-but-forgotten graves of victims of the Holocaust. These were mostly young girls and women, who died not long after arriving in Sweden for medical treatment in 1945. Both the victims and their graves have been overlooked for 74 years.

Grunberger Sari was 11 years old when WWII started. She died on January 16th, 1946. Six months after arrival to Sweden. She died in the hospital in Strängnäs.
In this particular area at the 3rd row there are five graves of Lily, Eva, Flora, Sari, and Regina.

The location in the 3rd row indicates that these Holocaust victims were fighting for their lives in 8 months after the liberation of the Bergen-Belsen concentrations camp in April 1945. Directly after the liberation, they were treated at the British field hospital at concentration camp site and thereafter at the Swedish field hospital with British, Swedish and German doctors.

Though they managed to survive until the liberation, they were seriously ill. Several survivors died at the field hospitals in Germany or when they boarded the S/S Kastelholm, one of the Swedish Red Cross' "White Ships" that transported survivors from Germany to Sweden.

During the summer of 1945. S/S Kastelholm did five crossings from Lübeck to Sweden. It is likely that three of the crossings went to Stockholm's Frihamnen port.

What happened in Sweden is known mainly from their Medical Cards. To start with, all were transported from Frihamnen to Ropsten sanitary facility [where a Tunnelbana Ropsten station now stands], and from there to the Epidemic Hospital at Roslagstull [present-day Roslagstull Hospital] in Stockholm or the field hospital (beredskapssjukhuset) located in school buildings in Sigtuna. In those places, many of the survivors died as early as only days or weeks after arrival. These survivors are buried in row 1 and 2 and in the other area of the cemetery called Kvarter K. There, the burials of Holocaust victims started in July 1945.

Lily, Eva, Flora, Sari and Regina were at about the same age as Anne Frank. They were in the same camp and they died due to the same cause, malnutrition, typhus other diseases like TBC at Bergen-Belsen. So Lily, Eva, Flora, Sari, and Reginas lives lasted only a few months longer, dying of complications from malnutrition and typhus in Sweden.

Lily, Eva, and Sari were all buried during the January 1946. Flora and Regina in March 1946.

When WWII started on September 1st, 1939, they were between 10 and 14 years old. All of them has been in the ghettos, concentration camps, ammunition factories, and slave labor camps.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Korczak i 101 grobów Ofiar Zaglady pochowanych w 1945 roku w Sztokholmie

Mój ostatni temat szwedzki to 101 grobów Ofiar Zaglady pochowanych w 1945 roku w Sztokholmie.
Przez 74 lata nagrobki tych nastolatków i kobiet przywiezionych Bialymi statkami do Szwecji (Akcja UNRRA i ICK) zostaly zapomniane. Teraz próbuje je rewitalizowac, zarówno plyty nagrobkowe zapadle 15 cm i pokryte trawa i mchem jak i historie osób tam pochowanych.
Sporo informacji znalazlem na ich Kartach Chorób ze szpitali sztokholmskich. Historia choroby zaczyna sie zazwyczaj od Getto 1940, pozniej nazwy obozów az do Bergen-Belsen gdzie zostaly wyzwolone na poczatku kwietnia 1945 r.
W obozie Bergen.Belsen panowaly wtedy wielkie epidemie chorób zakaznych. 10 000 cial znaleziono tam niepogrzebanych.
Mam równiez nadzieje ze na Zydowskim Cmentarzu Polnocnym w Sztokholmie stanie swoisty pomnik szesciu bryl z szarego granitu. Pozostalo bowiem miedzy grobami 6 wolnych miejsc. Nikt nie wie dlaczego pozostaly... Symbolika 6 kamieni to symbilika 6 obozów smierci jak i 6 000 000 ofiar Zaglady.
Oczywiscie mojego "dziadka" Korczaka nie opuszcze. O Nim, o Stefie, nauczycielach i 239 dzieciach bede myslal dzisiaj wedrujac po zamarznietych jeziorach wokól Sztokholmu.

About the Project in English by Victoria (Tori) Martinez in The Local