Friday, January 17, 2020

Today is January 17th. On that day, 75 years ago, Korczaks Dom Sierot at 92 Krochmalna was revisited by Captain Wroblewski - former "Pan Misza", the teacher at the Orphanage.

It was not easy to reach 92 Krochmalna although they had a 4-wheel drive Willys. When the finally reached Dom Sierot building he breathed sigh of relief. The house was burned out but the walls and constructions remained intact. Ruins of the Dom Sierot at 92 Krochmalna front view, November 1946, author unknown, Warsaw Town Hall archives collection.

Colonel Michal Wasserman Wroblewski (Pan Misza) with Ela Frydman (left) and Basia Abramow Newerly (right) at the Ghetto Fighters Monument in Warszawa. They represented Polish Korczak Committee.

Today is January 17th. On that day, 75 years ago, Korczaks Dom Sierot at 92 Krochmalna was revisited by captain Wroblewski - former Pan Misza, teacher at the Orphanage.
On January 17, 1945, Polish and Soviet forces liberated Warsaw during World War II and my father and his group of soldiers were first to cross frozen Wisla river during the night.
There were some shootings when they advanced towards Nowy Swiat. Just before the noon my father directed his driver Felek, to drive to 92 Krochmalna. He regarded this particular building as his Warszawa home.
It was not easy to reach 92 Krochmalna although they had a 4-wheel drive Willys. When the finally reached Dom Sierot building he breathed sigh of relief. The house was burned out but the walls and constructions remained intact. My Father left the building in September 1939 to join Polish Army. When he returned to Dom Sierot after 2 years (1941) the Orphanage was within the ghetto walls. 


2,000 Jewish survivors were found in underground hideouts of the prewar population of 400 000.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Les prisonniers d'Auschwitz enterrés à Stockholm






À droite / pierre d'Auschwitz du monument de l'Holocauste à Solna (Grand Stockholm) il y a de nombreuses tombes de jeunes filles et de femmes.
Tous étaient prisonniers à Auschwitz et tous ont été libérés à Bergen-Belsen. Tous ont été amenés au port de Stockholm dans les bateaux blancs pour recevoir des soins médicaux.
Ils sont venus de (sont nés) différents pays mais sont morts et ont été enterrés juste quelques jours après leur arrivée.
Le №. 70 sur la liste des sépultures (reproduite ci-dessous) est née en 1929, la même année qu'Anne Frank qui est morte quelques semaines plus tôt à Bergen-Belsen. Il est possible qu'elles se soient connues.

Analiza tekstów Janusza Korczaka - Dwie trumny i Zaproszenie do Icchaka Cukiermana i Cywii Lubetkin


Pierwsza moja analiza tekstów Korczaka to Dwie treumny. Opowiadanie napisane w Getcie zima 1941-1942 roku. Wlasciwie to tylko analiza jednego (1) zdania.

Pierwsza moja analiza to Dwie treumny. Opowiadanie napisane w Getcie zima 1941-1942 roku. Wlasciwie to tylko analiza jednego (1) zdania. Ta druga to krótkiego Zaproszenia na ostatnie przedstawienie w Getcie Warszawskim.

Dwie trumny - Analiza

Musieli widzieć tę trumnę wszyscy którzy szli do rodziny lewym chodnikiem naszej ulicy Śliskiej.

Ten tekst jest wspanialy. Prawie kazde zdanie, podobnie jak tytul powinno byc analizowane. Np. "Musieli widzieć tę trumnę wszyscy którzy szli do rodziny lewym chodnikiem naszej ulicy Śliskiej.". Po pierwsze "tę trumnę". Wiadomo ze żadnej trumny nie bylo. Po drugie "szli do rodziny" chodzi prawdopodobnie o dzieci które mialy rodzine w Getcie i podobnie jak przed wojna chodzily w sobote ja odwiedzic. "Lewym chodnikiem" to chodzi o chodnik po poludniowj stronie ulicy czyli nieparzystej. "Naszej ulicy Śliskiej" - to chodzi oczywiscie glównie o wejscie i bramę do Domu Sierot od ulicy Śliskiej nr. 9.


Ten dopisek „Wejście bezpłatne” jest dla mnie bardzo bolesny. Wstep na wszystkie przedstawienia w Domu Sierot był płatny. Widocznie Korczak wiedział że to już naprawdę koniec. Już niepotrzebne były pieniądze na utrzymanie!


Zaproszenie do Icchaka Cukiermana i Cywii Lubetkin - Analiza zaproszenia na przedstawienie Poczty
Premierowe i jedyne przedstawienie Poczty odbyło się w sobotę 18 lipca 1942 roku o godzinie 16.30 w dużej dwukondygnacyjnej sali balowej przedwojennego Domu Handlowców na trzecim piętrze budynku przy Siennej. Spektakl przygotowała z dziesięciorgiem wychowanków i otoczyła opieką reżyserską Estera Winogronówna, ceniona przez Korczaka wychowawczyni i animatorka wydarzeń kulturalnych w Domu Sierot. Znała doskonale sztukę Tagorego, ponieważ sama grała w szkolnej inscenizacji Poczty w Żydowskim Żeńskim Gimnazjum Humanistycznym „Juhudijah” w Warszawie. Spektakl szkolny przygotował z uczennicami w roku 1926 późniejszy znany reżyser Jakub Rotbaum.
Próba generalna Poczty w Domu Sierot, głównie dla wychowanków i pracowników internatu, odbyła się w kwietniu 1942 roku podczas święta Pesach. Widownia na premierze 18 lipca była wypełniona po brzegi mimo beznadziejnej sytuacji w getcie. Wydarzenie cieszyło się dużym rozgłosem, jego opis znalazł się między innymi w Podziemnym Archiwum Getta Emanuela Ringelbluma. Zaproszenia dla gości – elity intelektualnej i pracowników organizacji filantropijnych – zostały napisane na maszynie prawdopodobnie przez pracownika kancelarii Domu Sierot i jego wychowanka Pana Henka, czyli Henryka Azrylewicza, który redagował wewnętrzną gazetkę, a potem wysłane do zaproszonych gości przez gońców. Zachowało się między innymi zaproszenie skierowane imiennie do Icchaka Cukiermana i Cywii Lubetkin, czołowych postaci żydowskiego ruchu oporu w getcie warszawskim, i członków przywództwa Żydowskiej Organizacji Bojowej. Akcję zapraszania gości i organizację całego wydarzenia nadzorowała Stefania Wilczyńska, najbliższa współpracownica doktora Korczaka. Na zaproszeniach z datą wystawienia 15 lipca widnieje wpis zredagowany przez samego Korczaka: „Nie jesteśmy skłonni obiecywać, nie mając pewności. / Pewni jesteśmy, że godzina pięknej bajki myśliciela i poety da wzruszenie – »najwyższego szczebla« drabiny uczuć. / Przeto prosimy na sobotę dn. 18 lipca 1942 r. godz. 4.30 pp. / Dyrektor Domu Sierot”. Pod spodem zaś nota z fragmentem lirycznej recenzji autorstwa popularnego żydowskiego poety Władysława Szlengla: „/Z nienapisanej recenzji »Żywego Dziennika«/ / ....... Pierwszy prawdziwie artystyczny spektakl od 1939 r. / Coś więcej niż tekst – bo nastrój; / Coś więcej niż emocja – bo przeżycie; / Coś więcej niż aktorzy – bo dzieci; / /–/ Władysław Szlengel” oraz dopisek „Wejście bezpłatne”.

Ten dopisek „Wejście bezpłatne” jest dla mnie bardzo bolesny. Wstep na wszystkie przedstawienia w Domu Sierot był płatny. Widocznie Korczak wiedział że to już naprawdę koniec. Już niepotrzebne były pieniądze na utrzymanie!

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Jewish Cemetery in Warszawa - Ohels



Ohels are smal houses, structures built over graves. In Warszawa I saw 20-30 ohels.

Before I saw in Wroclaw (Breslau) two ohels dedicated to brothers Paul and Richard Ehrlich that were creators of Jewish hospital in Wroclaw (at Slezna Cemetery) and the only ohel exceptionally dedicated to a woman (at Lotnicza cemetery).

Monday, January 13, 2020

The costs of grass cutting versus Memory of Holocaust victims buried in Sweden. Jewish Congregation of Stockholm plans to remove the Holocaust Memorial to cut costs!


The very first model of Holocaust Monument that consists of six simple memorial stone stubs representing six death camps as well as six million Jews who perished. The stones have been placed among the graves of about 100 Holocaust victims who died shortly after their return to Stockholm and were buried at the Cemetery. 

The Monument unveiling ceremony took place on October 6, 2019 at the North Jewish Cemetery in Stockholm attended by many. The Monument consists of six simple memorial stone stubs representing six death camps as well as six million Jews who perished. The stones have been placed among the graves of about 100 Holocaust victims who died shortly after their return to Stockholm and were buried at the Cemetery. 


In the Protocol 2019:8, from the Stockholm Jewish Congregation Council (see below) published on December 18, 2019 stating in paragraph 6 that "the Congregation Council has the right to remove it (the Monument) and so it will be done."

Persons present at this Congregation Meeting as members of the board:

Aron Verständig, Fladen Boskovic, Hanna Halpern, Dan Levy, Richard Mühlrad, Daniel Nisell, Lotta Reisch Jensen, Gabriella Riboe, Eva Stein and Michael Zamek.


Other Persons present at this Congregation Meeting: Isak Reichel, Peter Christensen, Laila Takolander, Harry Goldman, Gunilla Lefébure, Petra Kahn Nord.

None of the above mentioned persons raised an objection to the decision to remove the Holocaust Memorial.


A letter of protest from the Swedish Holocaust Memory Association (SHMA) of December 19th to the Jewish Congregation in Stockholm has been left without any response or reaction until now February, 5th, 2020.

It is stunning that it took only 10 days for the Jewish Congregation in Stockholm - Aron Verständig Szugalski, Fladen Boskovic, Hanna Halpern, Dan Levy, Richard Mühlrad, Daniel Nisell, Lotta Reisch Jensen, Gabriella Riboe, Eva Stein and Michael Zamek to decide to ruin newly erected, October 6, Holocaust Monument. 

The speed of action of the Jewish Congregation is amazing. The same Congregation have since 1995 (25 years) problem to decide to install the tap water at the Jewish Cemeteries. Washing of the hands when leaving the cemetery is an old tradition and the cost of installation is approx. 2 000 USD.


The copy of the protocol from the October 16th, 2019 and § 6 about the removal of the present Holocaust Monument. The protocol is signed by chairman Aron Verständig. Secretary General Isak Reichel was also present at the same meeting. If needed we can send the entire protocol original as the Pdf file.



To whom it may concern.

This letter is to urgently request your action to prevent the planned removal of the Holocaust Monument erected in October 2019 in Stockholm to commemorate the lost lives of the Holocaust victims brought to Sweden from Bergen Belsen in 1945. 
The Monument has been established jointly with the Jewish Congregation of Stockholm and the Swedish Holocaust Memorial Association (SHMA) and supported by Heckscher Foundation as well as other private funds.  The Jewish Congregation of Stockholm has specifically approved the design and site of the Monument, as previously jointly presented to Stockholm City Council in January 2019.

The Monument unveiling ceremony took place on October 6, 2019 at the North Jewish Cemetery in Stockholm attended by many.  The Monument consists of six simple memorial stone stubs representing six death camps as well as six million Jews who perished.  The stones have been placed among the graves of about 100 Holocaust victims who died shortly after their return to Stockholm and were buried at the Cemetery. They were among approximately 600 survivors brought from Germany to Stockholm Harbour in UNRRA White Boats to seek medical care. As part of the Monument these 100 gravestones, hidden for almost 75 years, were dug out, uncovered and cleaned.   

Each uncovered tombstone contains personal information about each victim, including date of birth, country of origin and the date of death.  Many of the victims were in their early teens when the WWII had started and thus were very young when they all died in the 1945-46 in Stockholm.   Poland, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Germany, Yugoslavia, Greece were among the countries of birth. The assembly of these newly unearthed tombstones together with the memorial stones provides a unique and precious information about the otherwise completely lost individuals and their tragic histories. 
The personalised experience and the testimonies (direct or indirect) of the fate of single individuals seems absolutely crucial in efforts to educate future generations about the Holocaust and to preserve the memory of the Holocaust.

In this context, we are particularly alarmed by the Protocol 2019:8, from the Stockholm Jewish Congregation Council published on December 18, 2019 stating in paragraph 6 that "the Congregation Council has the right to remove it (the Monument) and so it will be done."

It is of importance that Mr. Henrik Salomon of the Heckscher Foundation has already responded in protest to the Jewish Congregation Council demanding immediate return of all the funds accepted and used by the Jewish Congregation on erecting the Monument.  

Twenty five years ago, on the 50th anniversary of the Death marches and the liberation of the concentration camps, the Jewish Congregation had suddenly opposed the erection of the Holocaust Memorial which commemorated the names of about 8000 Holocaust victims who came to Sweden after the WWII.  And yet since 1998, the Memorial proudly stands next to the Great Synagogue in Stockholm and it would not be there but for your specific and effective intervention.  It is with a similar plea that the Swedish Holocaust Memorial Association is asking your help and action.

Incidentally, we have already written (and received no reply) to Aron Verstandig, the Chairman of the Board of the Jewish Congregation in Stockholm.

Please let us know how we can be of further assistance, including provision of documentation. We attach two photographs of the new Holocaust Monument - one from the inauguration and the other commemorating the Kristalnacht

Romuald Wroblewski
Chairman 
Swedish Holocaust Memorial Association
romwro@gmail.com


People asked me if I had permission to build this Holocaust Monument. I not only had the permission from the Community but the Jewish Community in Stockholm officially approved and presented the Project as evidenced by the enclosed original document dated May 14th, 2019 and signed by the (same as above mentioned) Chairman and the Secretary General of the Jewish Community in Stockholm. For the English translation see below.


Logo of the Jewish Community in Stockholm
Jewish Community 
in Stockholm



Stockholm 2019-05-14

Jewish Community project “ Field for the year 1945 survivors”

In the Fall of 2018 Roman Wroblewski pointed out to the Jewish Community that the grave area J, called “field for the year 1945 survivors” (and also two raws in quarter K which belongs to the same group) at the North Jewish Cemetery in Solna should be urgently restored.

During the Fall, Wroblewski together with the stone conservator, Justyna Bamba, helped the Community to 

make the inventory of the gravestones which needed to be restored at the Jewish Cemetery.
Every year (2017 and 2018), the Community let the volunteers from Paideia school to clean and wash the gravestones but Wroblewski pointed it out that all the gravestones after more than 70 years sunk down so deep in the soil  that they were no longer visible and that rigorous renovation work was needed for the entire area so that the entire field would look dignified and clean.

Wroblewski suggested as well that 101 persons who are buried there in the J and K quarters -- mainly young women who have seen the Holocaust horrors and died shortly thereafater following arrival in Sweden,  carried the personal histories that should be told to the rest of the world, especially at the time of growing antisemitism.
Now when the last Holocaust survivors who were telling their stories in the public schols are leaving us, this is the way to tell the stories of the young girls who survived the Holocaust but were not lucky to live.

The Jewish Community has started the project and the dialogue is ongoing with the Commune of Stockholm, the City of Stockholm, the Museum of the City of Stockholm, and the Forum for Living History.   We have applied and have received funds from the Heckschers Foundation. We have also sought grants from Groschinskys Memory foundation and Riksantikvarieambetet. Funds are also being sought from the CIty of Stockholm.

The project is in two parts:  physical, to elevate the gravestones, renovate them and, when needed, correcting the names and birthplaces of victims so that the spelling would be correct.  Margot Hedemanns monument should be moved and placed in the head of the field. Six white stones are going to be placed in the six empty graves within the area.  The stone signpost will be placed just outside of the Jewish Cemetery to inform about this Holocaust victims quarter. 

The second part of the project is to be virtual.  Every grave will get its own QR-code with the information about the victim (their state of health, medical history, photographs) that will lead to cooperation between the City, schools, FFL, and others, and in this way, through the school projects, exhibitions, guided tours, and similar, memory will be kept of the persons buried there.  Hopefully the project will be completed in 2020.

Chairman Aron Verständig
                                
Secretary General Isak Reichel
                                                           /signature/
Blue round stamp 
of the Jewish Community
Stockholm

People asked me if I had permission to build this Holocaust Monument. I not only had the permission from the Community but the Jewish Community in Stockholm officially approved and presented the Project as evidenced by the enclosed original document dated May 14th, 2019 and signed by the (same as above mentioned) Chairman and the Secretary General of the Jewish Community in Stockholm. For the English translation see above.

Skärvor av ett liv finns även utspridda på de äldsta av de judiska begravningsplatserna i Stockholm.



Stenar och stenskärvor som berättar historia finns utspridda på de äldsta av de judiska begravningsplatserna i Stockholm. Huvudsakligen är det frågan om matseva stenarna av sandsten som har vittrat sönder. En del av de finns kvar vid graven, en del har flyttats bort.

Vad man än gör med stenarna så finns det dubbla känslor där. Man vill att stenarna skall bestå och en begravningsplats skall se ut som en begravningsplats och inte en djungel där stenkonturer sticker upp ovanför vegetationen här och där.

I Warszawa vid den judiska begravningsplatsen där mer är 200 000 människor finns begravda finns det lika många gravstenar. De gravstenskärvor som det bara finns en bit av lägger man ihop och gjuter en gemensam mosaik utav.

Żydowski ohel czyli budynek chroniący groby "osób zasłużonych".



Cmentarz na Okopowej w Warszawie jest też największym w Polsce skupiskiem oheli, czyli budynków chroniących groby osób zasłużonych dla społeczności żydowskiej. W większości są to konstrukcje o skromnej, wręcz ascetycznej architekturze.

Om en Judisk Gravsten som blev en Slipsten


Två slipstenar gjorda utav de judiska gravstenar.
Slipsten är en anordning för skärpning av eggverktyg. Den består av en roterande sten, oftast av sandsten.

På den judiska begravningsplatsen i Warszawa finns ett flertal matsevastenar som man har tidigare stulit från de övergivna begravningsplatserna och omvandlat till verktyg. Här en slipsten med vev.
En misshandel av gravstenen, tycker jag, fortsatte genom att upphittaren (herr Benedykt M.) absolut ville sätta sitt namn på den.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Titeln "Två kistor" är medvetet missvisande. Liken ligger utlagda på snön på gatan. Nakna. Det ena liket är ett barnlik. Korczak såg det på Sliskagatan.


Ett barnlik på gatan i Warszawas Getto

Hungriga barn i Warszawas Getto.

De mörka fyrkanterna på kartan är massgravar från Ghetttotiden.

Här finns bland annat en minnesvård över Janusz Korczak och massgravar från gettotiden

Judiska begravningsplatsen vid Gesiagatan, numera Okopowagatan i Warszawa är en av de största judiska begravningsplatserna i världen. Begravningsplatsen togs i bruk 1806 och hyser omkring 200 000 gravar. 

Här finns bland annat en minnesvård över Janusz Korczak och massgravar från gettotiden. Jag vågade mig inte till de massgravar som finns där då jag minns "för bra" de filmer som tyska fotografer tog. Både rörliga bilder och fotografier. 

Bland de papper som "Pan Misza" (min Far) räddade ur det tömda Dom Sierot efter deportationen den 5 augusti fanns en berättelse. Två kistor. Berättelsen var nog skriven under det sista vintern Doktorn fick uppleva. Vintern 1941-1942 skördade många liv. Undernäring och sjukdomar var huvudorsaken. Titeln "Två kistor" är medvetet missvisande. Liken ligger utlagda på snön på gatan. Nakna. Det ena liket är ett barnslik. Korczak såg det på Sliskagatan. Ett barnlik. Det är omlindat i ett fint förpackningspapper. inslaget med stor kärlek. Det siste en mor kunde ge till sitt barn. En fot sticker ut u paketet, ett barnfot. Foten syns för att man skall veta att det är ett lik, ännu ett barnlik som skall transporteras och begravas i en massgrav vid Gesia begravningsplatsen. På polska heter berättelsen Dwie trumny. Jag måste nog hitta den och läsa den på nytt fast jag är rätt så säker att i sak så återgav jag händelserna rätt. Jag minns dock att Korczaks ord var så mjuka och underbara i det han beskrev. Inte så råa och klumpiga som mina.

Minnet lever!