How much of the Holocaust Monument is his design? Not especially much! See below. Sivert Lindblom used together with Gabriel Herdewall just the same method only a few years later just 100 meters from the horses.
Back to the horses. The same horses can be seen at several places in the world and also in Sweden in Rotternos Park and in the City of Örebro. None of them are by Sivert Lindblom although they are just the same as Matchbox cars - identical. Also, the plinths are almost identical at the three locations in Sweden.
Wikipedia (pictures), see below, is showing the above horses at three locations in the world. They are identical and also the plinth at Rotternos is almost the same but not in bronze.
Horses of San Marco Basilica in Venice (ancient Greek or Roman, likely Imperial Rome), 4th century B.C.E. to 4th century C.E., copper alloy, 235 x 250 cm each has been plundered Constantinople in the 13th century during The Fourth Crusade directed a.o. to Constantinople. Constantinople, or Byzantium, had been founded by Constantine I in 330 and it became the capital of the Byzantium Empire, where the traditions of Greece and Rome were maintained and named after Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus that was was the first Christian Roman Emperor. He renamed Byzantium into an imperial residence, renaming it Constantinople.
When Pope Innocent III had become Pope in 1198, and immediately started to preach for a Fourth Crusade. So the 4th Crusade and plundering was the cause that the Four Horses, were taken from Constantinople to Venice. Of course the four horses were not the only things taken from that city. Also ending up in Venice were the Tetrarchs, built into a corner of the Basilica of San Marco, adjacent to the Porta della Carta. The next plunder of the horses was Napoleone. The Four Horses were brought to Paris and initially housed in Les Invalides, then placed on gate piers guarding the entrance to the Tuileries, before finally being placed atop the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, also in the Tuileries. However, compared to their centuries of repose in Venice, their stay in Paris was over in the blink of an eye. A mere 17 years after their removal from Venice, and following Napoleon’s final exile to St Helena after the defeat at Waterloo in June 1815, Austrian and English engineers lowered them from the arch on 17 October 1815, under guard by Austrian soldiers . Two months later they were loaded onto barges and ferried across the lagoon and back to their old home. There they stood until air pollution forced their removal, in the early 1980s, to their present, much less lofty, position just inside the Basilica.
|The same horses as in Venice (middle) can be seen at several places in the world and also in Sweden in Rotternos Park in Sune (left), the City of Örebro and the one in Stockholm (right), signed by Sivert Lindblom.|
The same horse sculpture as in Stockholm is in the city of Örebro. However, in the list of the sculptures in Örebro there is the following statement: Lista över offentlig konst i Örebro kommun -Bysantinsk häst, Okänd, 1997, Brons, Stallbacken / Kungsgatan 1.
Okänd means that the sculptor is unknown. In Stockholm there is the name of Sivert Lindblom on the same horse from the same source, Glyptotek in Copenhagen and to start with Constantinople/Venice horses.
So, what is the history of the Constantinople horses in Sweden? It was 1959 when Svante Påhlson made bronze castings on Herman Bergman's Art Foundry in Stockholm of two of the horses of copies that were on the Glyptotek in Copenhagen. It was for his big love, read Rottneros Park. Bergman's art foundry also made another copy, Two copy for Stallbacken in city of Örebro. None of these bronze castings has Sivert Lindbloms name on it. Just the casting in Stockholm. Why is Sivert Lindblom signing the work from Constantinople more than 2000 years ago by his name? Money?
|"Commemorated by" was my system which I used from the very beginning so the Holocaust survivors that send the information to me about their Holocaust victims could easily find them on the wall with 6 000+ names.|
Three pages from the Romuald Roman Wroblewskis application to the City Hall in Stockholm (1994) included the description of entire Holocaust Monument in Stockholm, its location and the way the names of the Holocaust victims should be arranged.